The rapidly developing sphere of the construction industry constantly requires the emergence of new technologies and materials. Therefore, many are wondering which blocks are best for building a house, since it is they who have recently enjoyed the most popularity and compete at a high level with the long-known brick. The emergence of a new type of masonry raw materials was caused mainly by the desire to speed up the construction process and reduce its labor intensity.

Which blocks are best for building a house: an overview of various materials

For the construction of a residential building, various types of building blocks can be used.

What are the blocks for building a house: the main types and characteristics

The larger, in comparison with the brick, the size of the building blocks make it possible to produce masonry several times faster, and their relatively low weight greatly facilitates the work. This quality gave a significant impetus to their introduction to the market.

Large block sizes allow for quick and easy construction

Large block sizes allow for quick and easy construction

There are several classifications of blocks for construction. Depending on the dimensions of the product, they can be divided into the following groups: small-sized and large-sized. The first group includes products with small dimensions, low strength and heat conductivity. The second group will be represented by products with large dimensions and high strength indicators, as well as medium insulating characteristics.

Better building blocks are classified according to the type of material used to make them. The main component of all types is invariably concrete. Only minor materials and production technology vary.

The following groups can be distinguished here:

  • concrete;
  • expanded clay concrete;
  • gas silicate;
  • aerated concrete;
  • foam concrete;
  • polystyrene concrete;
  • slag concrete;
  • arbolite;
  • ceramic.
3D rendering of a two-storey cottage built from blocks

3D rendering of a two-storey cottage built from blocks

Defining characteristics and their influence on consumer choice

Considering in more detail all types of blocks for construction, you need to dwell on their main technical characteristics. This is the density thermal conductivity, compressive strength, frost resistance. They are decisive when choosing the right material. Based on these parameters and dimensions, the correct calculation of the number of blocks for building a house is made.

It is always worthwhile to clearly think over all types of work, since various blocks are suitable for specific goals. You need to focus on a certain course: it will be just insulation, a partition, or a more massive supporting structure. What type of construction will this material be applicable to: capital construction in the form of, for example, a house or garage, or a simpler version of a summer shower or outbuilding. And of course one more factor: how much do the blocks cost to build a house.

Concrete blocks: performance and scope

This type of block was the very first on the production line. It is very common in applications, especially where high strength of the building is required. Depending on the grade of concrete used, the following groups can be distinguished: FBS, FBV and FBP.

Concrete blocks are the most demanded in the building materials market

Concrete blocks are the most demanded in the building materials market

There is a state standard in which the sizes of blocks for construction are clearly regulated. This makes it possible to accurately calculate the costs for the construction of buildings. The above brands can have a solid structure or longitudinal cuts designed for laying communications.

The most significant advantage of these block types is ease of use. In most cases, they are applicable for laying a foundation. Thus, when using this particular technology, the process can be greatly facilitated. You will not need to pour concrete, while attracting a lot of additional equipment, you will not have to wait for its hardening time to continue further work.

The price of concrete blocks measuring 390x190x188 mm, which differ only in the number of slots in their structure, is from 40 to 55 rubles / piece. Smaller dimensions 390x80x188 and 390x90x188 mm cost from 25 to 30 rubles / piece.

Construction of a residential building from concrete blocks

Construction of a residential building from concrete blocks

Expanded clay blocks: properties, advantages and disadvantages

In the manufacture of expanded clay concrete blocks, expanded clay is used as an admixture. It is a porous material produced in the form of granules by firing clay. This mixture gave very unusual properties to new types of blocks, thanks to which they have won due recognition from the consumer.

By varying the amount of filler, a block of different strength is obtained as a result. This leads to an expansion of the range of applications for this material. The most popular density is from 500 to 1800 kg / cm³. The denser the material, the stronger it is and can be used for multi-storey buildings.

The construction of houses from expanded clay concrete blocks has a number of positive qualities. Buildings do not deform, do not shrink, do not crack. The low manufacturing cost is also a plus. The availability of a sufficient amount of starting material and the low technological cost of production in general provide the maximum benefit from its use.

The expanded clay concrete block has dimensions of 390x90x188 mm

The expanded clay concrete block has dimensions of 390x90x188 mm

Note! Precisely because the production of lightweight aggregate blocks does not require large material costs, many are trying to make it on their own "handicraft method". Failure to comply with some of the necessary standards results in poor-quality material and inadequacy of block sizes for construction.Therefore, when purchasing this product, you must definitely make sure of the good reputation of the manufacturer.

This block also needs insulation with finishing materials, and from the outside. This will give a positive effect of increasing thermal conductivity, as well as increase the life of the building.

The price for expanded clay concrete blocks depends on their size and purpose. For a hollow wall block, the dimensions of which are 390x190x188 mm, it fluctuates on average from 33 to 50 rubles / piece. and directly depends on the number of voids-slots in the material.

The solid block has the most popular dimensions 390x190x188 mm, and its price is slightly higher, about 57 rubles / piece. The partition type of this type is most often presented in the size of 390x90x188 mm and the price range ranges from 25-30 rubles / piece.

Construction of a house from expanded clay concrete blocks

Construction of a house from expanded clay concrete blocks

Gas silicate blocks and the main criteria for their use

The construction of houses from gas silicate blocks has become very popular recently. The material itself, aerated concrete, is made from cement, quicklime, quartz sand and aluminum powder by the autoclave method under the action of certain temperatures and pressures. In the process of mixing these components, a large amount of hydrogen is released, which, when solidified, gives the finished product a cellular structure.

Advantages and disadvantages of gas silicate blocks

The positive qualities of gas silicate blocks are as follows:

  • they have a small mass and therefore the construction will be much easier than, for example, brick. This property makes it possible to reduce the pressure on the foundation. This means that the skeleton itself can be planned less capital, which significantly saves money;
  • a low level of thermal conductivity will provide a higher temperature in the interior;
  • a variety of shapes and sizes makes this material in demand. Without being limited to specific size ranges, manufacturers are expanding the range of consumption. The design with additional grooves and groove joints is also quite popular;
Gas silicate block is a popular material for building houses

Gas silicate block is a popular material for building houses

  • the large size of the gas silicate block for building a house and their clear, even edges significantly speed up the construction process;
  • the use of special adhesive mixtures for masonry, which are simply diluted with water in a certain proportion, also saves time;
  • gas silicate, due to its structure, easily lends itself to sawing, processing, laying all kinds of strobes;
  • high fire resistance comes first in terms of safety.

Despite a number of the above positive qualities, several negative ones can be distinguished: the cellular structure of the material gives not only pluses, but also minuses. It clearly lowers the density index, the level of compression and tension. Therefore, the maximum number of floors of such buildings should not exceed 2. Otherwise, experiencing a heavy load, the lower rows will begin to collapse and shrink. The appearance of cracks is possible.

Note! To increase the strength of the walls, experts recommend reinforcing the building with steel reinforcement.

Wall construction using gas silicate blocks

Wall construction using gas silicate blocks

Blocks of this type in the size range 60x25x50 and 60x25x40 mm cost an average of 30 to 206 rubles / piece. Increasing the last parameter increases the price. Sizes 60x30x10, 60x30x20 and 60x30x25 have a cost of 30, 58 and 75 rubles / piece. respectively. The most expensive are the largest - 60x37.5x25 mm, which have a price of 210-233 rubles / piece. and 60x40x25 mm - 225-240 rubles / piece.

Construction of houses from aerated concrete blocks: advantages and disadvantages

Just as in the case of using gas silicate blocks, aerated concrete construction begins with determining what needs to be obtained in the end: main walls, partitions of a two-story array or insulation of existing buildings.Based on the tasks set, you just need to buy blocks for building a house of the required density. And also take care of the exterior wall decoration. It should provide not only an acceptable appearance of the structure, but also minimize the moisture absorption coefficient.

Aerated concrete blocks are made by autoclave method. They are composed of cement, lime, gypsum and aluminum powder. As in the case of the gas silicate type, a massive chemical reaction occurs between the constituent components, as a result hydrogen is released, due to which the cellular structure of the material is obtained.

Various sizes and shapes of aerated concrete blocks

Various sizes and shapes of aerated concrete blocks

After complete hardening, aerated concrete is cut into the required size blocks for building a house using a string. Therefore, the result obtained is distinguished by ideal geometrically smooth edges. This is important, since during laying there will be very few gaps at the seams, which will provide an additional percentage of heat.

This block type has another attractive feature. Due to its special structure, it is easy to cut with a regular saw. In this way, you can quickly adjust the parameters and get the desired size of the aerated concrete block for building a house.

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Pay attention to the marking: the main selection parameter

Aerated concrete blocks are very popular today. Numerous offers from manufacturers provide an opportunity to use this material not only for walls, but also for ceilings, lintels for windows and doors. A large size range makes it possible to build the entire structure from these blocks.

As well as on other types of blocks, aerated concrete products can have mounting grooves for ease of use. Such a connection will give the maximum fit and the desired thermal conductivity.

Aerated concrete block can be easily cut with a regular hacksaw

Aerated concrete block can be easily cut with an ordinary hacksaw

When choosing the necessary material, pay attention to the marking. It is designated by the Latin letter D followed by the numbers. These numbers indicate the density of the block. Thus, the most applicable brands are D500-D900, which weigh 18 kg with a size of 600x250x200 mm and thus can replace 20 pcs. bricks.

Foam concrete: optimal price-quality ratio

The concrete block belongs to the cellular types of building materials. All their qualities are inherent in him. It is made from a mixture of concrete and a foaming agent. The foam is prepared in a special generator and then poured directly into the cement. It envelops and thus closes all the cells in the structure. After the mixture enters special cassettes and remains solidified at the natural ambient temperature. There is no special thermal effect on this material.

Note! Foam concrete needs to "stand" on average 28 days from the date of production in order to finally harden and obtain the required strength.

Foam concrete block with facing side

Foam concrete block with facing side

Many developers note the favorable price of blocks for building a house: any private developer can buy foam concrete products. At the same time, they make it possible to easily withdraw, for example, any curly arches or partitions.

When considering which blocks are best for building a house: gas and foam concrete are often compared. There is no definite answer to this question, but it is worth considering a few points:

  • aerated concrete blocks look like a sponge. Their cell pores are not closed, as a result, they actively absorb and retain moisture that has got into them. In this regard, foam blocks with completely closed and concentrated cells exclusively inside are in a more advantageous position;
  • if we also impose a subzero ambient temperature on the absorbed moisture, we will get a disappointing result for the gas block: it will crack and shrink;
  • foam concrete has a lower density, it contains more cells that are filled with air. Therefore, it retains heat much better;
  • for the manufacture of aerated concrete blocks, more professional equipment is used, which makes it possible to have clear dimensions and correct edges of the products.
The most demanded size of the foam concrete block is 600x300x200 mm

The most demanded size of the foam concrete block is 600x300x200 mm

A foam concrete block, depending on its density, in the most popular size of 600x300x200 mm, has a cost from 95 to 120 rubles / piece. Naturally, the high density material has the highest price. If you increase at least one of the dimensional parameters, for example, up to 600x400x200 mm, then the price will be 120-170 rubles / piece.

What blocks to choose for building a house: the advantages and disadvantages of polystyrene concrete

This type of blocks appeared relatively recently on the building materials market. It is deservedly popular with developers. Its following characteristics are very important:

  • low thermal conductivity;
  • soundproofing;
  • reliability;
  • frost resistance;
  • ecological cleanliness.
Polystyrene concrete has high sound insulation qualities

Polystyrene concrete has high sound insulation qualities

The manufacturing process takes place both in production conditions and at home. A mixture of granules of polystyrene, cement, sand and additives for hardening is poured into a concrete mixer in a clearly defined sequence, mixed. Then it is poured into pre-prepared molds for solidification for about a day in natural conditions. After 24 hours, the blocks can be removed, gently laid out on a flat surface until completely dry.

All polystyrene concrete blocks can be divided into two types:

  • with cladding. They do not require additional finishing of the facade, since one side can be made in the form of stone, marble or granite. An important point is the absence of any additional adhesives. This layer of the facing side is part of the concrete;
  • regular blocks that are used to build walls. The cost of blocks for building a house made of polystyrene concrete is about half the cost of bricks.

A polystyrene concrete block with a size of 600x300x250 mm has a price of 120-160 rubles / piece. A smaller block measuring 390x190x188 mm costs 40-50 rubles / piece.

The polystyrene concrete block contains polystyrene granules, cement, sand and various additives

The polystyrene concrete block contains polystyrene granules, cement, sand and various additives

Almost all the negative aspects of using this type of material depend on the correctness of its manufacture. If the blocks were made without strict adherence to the rules, then the possibility of microcracks and shrinkage increases significantly.

Plus, special fibers must be added to this so that a durable product comes out as a result. If you save on these fibers, you get a block that is not very justifiable. All this must be taken into account when buying.

Special qualities of slag and its use in the cinder-concrete industry

The product obtained after strong heat treatment of any raw material is called slag. It is an oxide alloy. When using slag for the production of concrete blocks, the material is taken without any additional chemical compounds.

Hollow cinder block is ideal for building walls and partitions

Hollow cinder block is ideal for building walls and partitions

It is important to properly prepare the slag for use. It should stand for about six months in the open air. This will enable natural atmospheric precipitation to wash out the remnants of sulfur and lime impurities from it. It will be good if it is moved from place to place several times. Such an action will also help to filter out all unnecessary.

The production of slag concrete blocks takes place using slag sand (it gives additional density) and crushed stone (gives additional lightness).The finished products contain about 2/3 of cement and 1/3 of lime plus the required amount of slag.

Subject to all the necessary norms and requirements, the price of blocks for building a house will be very reasonable. The result is a good price-quality ratio.

The main characteristics of these blocks are its strength grade, as well as density. The following brands are distinguished:

  • M10 - used for insulation;
  • M25 and M 35 - suitable for the construction of partitions of low bearing capacity;
  • M50 and above are used for the construction of load-bearing walls.
Slag blocks of brand M50 and higher are used for the construction of load-bearing walls

Cinder blocks grades M50 and higher are used for the construction of load-bearing walls

Pros and cons of cinder blocks

The advantages of cinder blocks over bricks are their relatively light weight. Less pressure is created on the foundation and other supporting structures. This extends the service life of the buildings. Like other types of blocks, they greatly speed up the construction process due to their size.

Disadvantages can be highlighted even at the production stage: a long time for the preparation of the material itself, and a long time to achieve the desired hardening rate. Only after a month it reaches only 50% of this value. It will take a year for full compliance.

The cinder blocks used for interior partitions have a size of 390x90x190 mm and cost 17-35 rubles / piece. For buildings for various purposes, products with a size of 390x240x190 mm are used, the material has voids-chambers and costs 50-80 rubles / piece. For objects with increased load, a solid material with a size of 390x190x190 mm and a cost of 35-80 rubles / piece is used. Cinder blocks with the same size and with a different number of chambers are used to build the outer walls of residential buildings. They cost about 34-55 rubles / piece.

Slag concrete block masonry

Slag concrete block masonry

Environmentally friendly wood concrete blocks

Arbolite blocks belong to the group of wall blocks. They are 80% wood. Cement and various chemical additives remain unchanged in the composition of all blocks. For proper manufacturing, the wood must be dried well, chemicals must be added in order to stop the processes in organic matter and for better bonding between the main components.

Arbolite can be produced in the form of blocks, plates, panels and solutions for pouring monolithic surfaces. All this can be used to create walls and insulation.

They have a number of advantages: heat protection of the house, high sound insulation performance, environmentally friendly composition, they are lightweight and do not give a large load on the foundation, they are easy to process and can be used without reinforcement when building small formats.

The disadvantages of the blocks under consideration is the need for mandatory cladding, since the material itself does not have a very attractive appearance. You should always pay attention to the manufacturer, since many wood processing plants are engaged in this type of work. Since this process is not specialized for them, then quality is worth thinking about.

Arbolite blocks are an environmentally friendly building material

Arbolite blocks are an environmentally friendly building material

There are not many features of installation for wood concrete blocks. The masonry is carried out in 1-1.5 blocks, the usual cement mortar is used, the reinforcement can be used at will. Experienced builders advise taking a dry break every 3 rows, as the blocks are very light.

This environmentally friendly material is one of the highest in the price. An arbolite block with a size of 150x200x500 mm costs about 60 rubles / piece, 200x200x500 mm - 80 rubles / piece. and 300x200x500 mm - 120 rubles / piece.

Straw concrete blocks: is it worth the fear?

A separate type of wood concrete blocks are straw concrete blocks. This is a new kind of product that is ideal for followers of environmentally friendly materials. Their production has not yet been widely delivered, many are skeptical about this, but they already have their own consumer.

When making straw blocks, it is important to take into account the quality of the raw materials. The straw should be, firstly, of a certain type, and, secondly, perfectly dry. All further construction technology depends on the quality of drying. If the material contains even the slightest percentage of moisture, then it will not be possible to avoid rotting, flowering, and the reproduction of harmful microorganisms.

The process of making straw concrete blocks

The process of making straw concrete blocks

Helpful advice! This type of block is used only for wireframe buildings. After all, no matter how much chopped straw is poured with cement, it will still remain a soft building material.

Nevertheless, they have a very long service life, and you can buy straw blocks for construction at very affordable prices.

Construction of houses from ceramic blocks

This type of block is interesting in its own way. Depending on the constituent substances, products can be divided into two types: porous and non-porous. The members of the first group include clay, foam waste and cellulose. Minor additives burn out under the influence of temperature, after which microscopic pores appear in the structure of the finished block, which provides greater thermal insulation.

Ceramic blocks can be of various sizes and shapes

Ceramic blocks can be of various sizes and shapes

Unported blocks do not contain any additives. Therefore, they are heavier in weight and have less thermal insulation. Both groups have high physical and technical characteristics. Good thermal efficiency, sound insulation, environmental friendliness, ease of installation are also inherent in ceramic blocks.

They can be used for the construction of multi-storey buildings, the construction of interior partitions, and are suitable for complex architectural tasks. According to its properties, ceramics does not need additional cladding, heat and waterproofing. This significantly reduces the cost estimate by eliminating many additional materials.

A special feature of ceramic blocks laying is the purchase of special glue without fail. The cement slurry has a very liquid consistency that fills all the pores of the block and thus minimizes many of its beneficial properties. And special glue with a thickness of only 2 cm is able to ensure the strength of the connection and not cause harm.

The second point to keep in mind is the use of ligating vertical seams with fiberglass mesh. It is laid every 2 rows.

Building a house from ceramic blocks

Building a house from ceramic blocks

The ceramic block has the following dimensions and cost: 25x120x65 mm - 12 rubles / piece, 250x120x140 and 250x120x140 mm - 17 rubles / piece, 250x250x140 and 80x500x219 mm - 45 rubles / piece, 150x50x219 mm - 60 rubles / piece ... and 510x95x219 mm - 67 rubles / piece.

Construction of non-residential premises from blocks

Today, it is very popular to build from blocks not only residential premises, but also, for example, street storage rooms, a summer shower or a garage.

Consider briefly the main points of the construction of the latter. Most often, construction takes place on its own. Therefore, you need to immediately decide which blocks are best for building a garage? Note that, in principle, any kind is suitable. You should evaluate all the pros and cons and choose the most acceptable option for yourself.

A garage made of foam or aerated concrete must be reinforced during construction. This will give the desired density. Wall decoration cannot be avoided, and immediately after the end of construction. Since the porous structure will absorb moisture and be exposed to frost, which will soon cause many problems.

Construction scheme of a building made of polystyrene concrete and fiberboard

Construction scheme of a building made of polystyrene concrete and fiberboard

When building from slag or expanded clay blocks, the actions are slightly different. Here they do not use an armored belt, but simply lay out the top row with holes up. Subsequently, these voids are filled with rubble or concrete. Thus, a reinforced concrete structure is obtained.

In all cases, pay special attention to plinth... It would be most correct to lay out the first few rows of strong red brick. A slightly different option: the already exposed formwork is poured with concrete.

Note! Always evaluate the quality of the soil before starting construction. After assessing the soil, the correct foundation is selected.

Building a bath from blocks: a quick guide

Building a bathhouse from concrete blocks is a good alternative to wooden buildings. Taking into account the individual characteristics of the structure, the correct type of products is selected.

Building a bath from blocks: steps 1-6

Bath construction from blocks: steps 1-6

The most applicable foam and aerated concrete blocks with their cellular structure will strongly absorb moisture. Therefore, you will have to spend a lot of financial and labor costs for reinforced waterproofing of the walls on both sides.

Block walls are finished on both sides. Outside, a wooden crate is used, in the cells of which layers of heat, steam and waterproofing are laid. Since the bathhouse is a place of maximum moisture formation, it is worth considering options for slag or expanded clay blocks.

Construction begins from the foundation. It is advantageous to use tape monolithic concrete blocks, which are laid on a cushion of crushed stone and sand. A layer of roofing material is spread on the foundation itself. It will act as a waterproofing agent.

Having decided which blocks are best for the construction of a bath, their laying is carried out in rows with obligatory linking. It is best to use a special adhesive solution here. This will make it possible to keep warm. The most common laying is half a block wide, which is quite profitable in terms of savings.

Building a bath from blocks: steps 7-12

Building a bath from blocks: steps 7-12

After the walls have been erected, you need to think about high-quality roof reinforcement. To strengthen the fastening systems, a special beam is used, which is attached to the block wall using metal studs or anchors. This will enable the block wall to withstand the increased load.

Which blocks are better for building a house: correct material calculation

When building any premises, you need to choose blocks according to several criteria:

  • determine the most suitable type in terms of characteristics;
  • material quality;
  • reasonable and cost-effective price.

Considering what are the best blocks for building a house, their price plays an important role. Having picked up the right quality material, any developer strives to make his business the most profitable in material terms. The cost of blocks is directly affected by the size of the blocks for construction.

Preliminary calculation of the required number of blocks will avoid unnecessary waste and large residues of material

Preliminary calculation of the required number of blocks will avoid unnecessary waste and large residues of material

Here, acquaintance with the price lists of suppliers and, of course, the correct calculation of the required amount of material, which can be carried out using an online calculator, will come to the rescue. The calculation of blocks for building a house in this case will be correct and correct. To do this, you must enter the parameters required by the program.

You can make calculations yourself using this formula:

V = (P x H x L) - S1 - S2,

where P is the perimeter of the base, H is the height of the walls, L is the thickness of the walls, S1 - area of ​​doorways, S2 - the area of ​​window openings.

Using this formula, you can calculate the required volume of blocks. By dividing this volume by the volume of one structural element, you can easily find out the required amount of material.

In the construction of houses from bricks and blocks, at the same time, it is necessary to take into account the amount of both materials separately. Having made all the necessary calculations, you can easily buy blocks for building a house.

Building blocks must be purchased with a small stock

Building blocks must be purchased with a small stock

From all of the above, it follows that in order to obtain a high-quality building, it is necessary to correctly determine the required material, correctly calculate its quantity and not miscalculate with the price.It should be noted that each type of block has its own pros and cons. There can be no specific answer to the question which option is better. Everything is determined by the specifics of construction and its purpose.