Everyone who builds two-storey private houseare faced with the need to choose a staircase option. Household stairs have very strict requirements: they must be comfortable, reliable and fit perfectly into the interior of the room. Wooden stairs in a private house fully satisfy these parameters: projects, photo options and main characteristics must be studied in detail before installation.
Wooden stairs in a private house: projects, photo options
In modern construction, various materials are used for the construction of stairs:
- glass combined with a metal frame;
- wood with a metal base;
- a rock;
All of them are quite reliable, durable and, with proper processing, have a beautiful presentable appearance. Projects of wooden stairs in a private house, the photo of which shows all their attractiveness, also have a relatively low cost estimate.
All stairs in the house are divided into main and auxiliary. The former act as a portal between floors, while the latter lead to the basement or the attic. According to the structure of the march, several main projects of wooden stairs in a private house can be distinguished. A photo of such structures attracts with its elegance. Here are some basic options for straight flights:
- stairs with straight flights. This design has gained the most extensive distribution, as it has simplicity in execution. If the area of the room does not allow, then two or three ladders are made with an interfloor area between them. Since it is easiest to make the correct biomechanical calculation of such a structure, climbing and descending such a staircase is very convenient;
- L-shaped structures of flights of stairs are quite common, since they have the necessary compactness. Such a staircase is installed near two or one wall and has several winder steps at the turning point. These steps are made in the form of triangles with an acute angle, so there are some inconveniences when driving in such areas. Nevertheless, among the projects of wooden stairs in a private house, a photo of such structures takes a worthy place;
- U-shaped stairs are installed in special interfloor shafts or bay windows. The turn in them is carried out in the same way as in the L-shaped, but it turns out to be double;
- T-structures are built in large and wealthy mansions, since they require a lot of space to build them. They also have a corresponding value.This staircase of three flights is arranged. One leads from the first floor to the interfloor area, and two from it to the second floor.
Due to the small complexity of the calculation and construction, the device of a wooden staircase to the second floor with your own hands can be performed by a non-professional.
DIY wooden stairs to the second floor
The design of the simplest straight wooden stairs involves the installation of several basic elements:
- two sidewalls, which are called bowstrings. They represent exactly the same massive boards, in which rectangular triangles are chosen under the steps. These elements are the load-bearing base, so they must have sufficient strength and reliability;
- steps, which are planks of about 250 mm. wide and 40 mm. thick. They are inserted into the grooves of the sidewalls;
- risers are optional. Boards installed on the edge between the upper and lower steps, covering the space under the steps;
- railings - a device for the convenience of descent and ascent. Built for safety and design. Some types of stairs may be missing;
- interfloor area, which serves to reduce the area occupied by the structure while maintaining the normal angle of inclination of the steps.
The process of constructing a wooden staircase to the second floor with your own hands can be done in the following order:
- construction of an interfloor area. In its simplest form, it is a very large stool with four legs and a platform on top. First, a frame is made with stiffeners of the required dimensions. Legs of the desired height are attached to it. The entire structure is put in its place and a temporary flooring is placed on it so as not to damage the main boards during the construction process;
- then bowstrings are made according to the template and fastened together in steps. The ends of the sidewalls are cut at the desired angle and the entire span is attached to the site. A second similar span is installed between the site and the second floor. The whole structure is firmly fastened together and attached to the wall;
- attachment of balusters and installation of handrails. These elements cannot be made without special carpentry tools, so they can be purchased at the store.
Useful advice! You can varnish the product. It is advisable to apply a stain with the desired shade under it. The only drawback of such a coating is the need for complete cleaning of varnish during subsequent repairs.
It is not difficult to build a staircase according to a ready-made template, but in order to make it, you need to make a competent and optimal calculation of a wooden staircase to the second floor.
Calculation of a wooden staircase to the second floor
For the device of a comfortable and functional staircase, it is necessary to make a competent payment its main parameters. The most important indicator here is the angle of inclination. The convenience of ascent and descent depends on it.
Useful advice! A staircase that is too steep is inconvenient, and a staircase that is too flat takes up a lot of space. The optimum angle range is between 23 and 37 degrees.
The width of the steps should allow two people to freely disperse on them. It is most convenient when it is 1.2 - 1.5 m. The height of each step should not exceed 180 - 200 mm. Therefore, to climb, for example, to a height of 2.7 m, you need to make 15 steps. Based on the fact that the width of one step is 250 mm, we get 3750 mm, projection onto the floor.
Now, using the Pythagorean theorem (H² + D² = L², where H is the height, D is the length of the projection onto the floor, L is the required length of the stairs), we calculate the length of the march. In our example, it turns out to be 4620 mm.As you can see, these are quite large in size, so more often the stairs are made with a platform between floors. In this case, the calculations of the wooden stairs to the second floor must be made separately for each march. Such a staircase will take half the area.
DIY spiral staircase
They look especially elegant stairs to the second floorhaving curvilinear marches. High-quality designers and craftsmen are engaged in their creation, since this process is quite complicated. Among the curved structures are:
- Circular structures that have one center of symmetry.
- Curved, requiring three-dimensional design skills. They may have two or more centers.
The most famous of all curved designs is the spiral staircase. With your own hands it is quite possible to arrange such a structure if certain requirements are met.
Spiral or spiral staircases are of three types:
- With one stand in the middle, on which the steps are mounted.
- With one post and a spiral bowstring.
- With two spiral carrying bowstrings.
The easiest way is to build a spiral staircase of the first type with your own hands. For this, a pipe is installed from floor to ceiling. Steps are put on it, in the form of an acute triangle in a spiral. Their number must be calculated based on the convenience of lifting. For such stairs, special rounded railings are used.
Useful advice!If the spiral staircase is the only one in the house, then first you need to raise the furniture to the top, since it will be almost impossible to do this along such a staircase.
Installation of a folding ladder to the attic
Secondary stairs do not require any special decorative design, so everyone can make them. An example is a folding ladder to the attic. Installation of this structure is not difficult. A regular ladder, consisting of two or three folding segments, is attached to the inside of the attic hatch. When you open this hatch, folding ladder to the attic straightens out. This design allows you to hide unadorned staircase elements in the attic.
Whichever type of staircase is chosen, the main thing is that it is comfortable, safe and organically fits into the interior of the house.